Saturday, October 17, 2015

भूत - bhUta - beings or ghosts?




In many Indian languages, the word bhoot/bhoota (भूत) would inspire some flurry of electrical current up the spine. It means - ghost. There are movies with names like bhoota bangalaa (ghost bungalow) that were the pioneers of the horror genre in India. And then the Bib-B starrer recent flick called Bhootnath (protector/king of ghosts!)

And yet, Shiva (शिव) is also called bhUta-nAthaH (भूतनाथः). This of course gives fan to the fire that Shiva is the Lord of the ghosts, and wanders the cemetery, smears the ashes of the burning grounds. And trust me, all this has deep metaphorical meaning that will scare 'The Brief History of Time' out of you. More on this below.

The verb 'bhU/bhoo' (/भू) is a very basic verb. Out of the ten classes of verbs, one of them is called bhu-Adi-gaNa (भू-आदि-गण) or bhavAdigaNa (भवादिगण) i.e. "group of bhU and other verbs."

bhU means - to be.
bhava - you be.
bhavati = she/he/it becomes.

It is slightly different from 'is'. We say -
He became angry.
Water becomes ice.
etc.

It is a state change.

That which *has* become - bhUta.

Now, who has become (past tense) is relative as well.
All beings you see, were not beings earlier, in these bodies. They were souls. Before that part of the Supreme Soul. Before that unmanifest 'unperceivable' para-brahma.
Upon birth (or conception, if you are a nit-picker) , they *became*. Before that they were not.
They were, but not in a form that could have been perceived by us.

So, all beings are called 'bhUta'. All of life, not just you and me, the supreme creation, but even the lowly earthworm is a bhUta.

Now, when someone dies, from this life's point of view they 'were'. Had been. Had become, not now anymore. They are also called bhUta - one who *had* become (past perfect?).

And hence the word for one who had been is bhUta. And if that "had been" tries to become "is being" we really get our spines jolted and scream - ghost!!

So, why is Shiva called bhUtanAtha? Well, Shiva is the deity of transformation, of time. And from unmanifest to manifest, spirit to matter and to spirit again, are all transformations. And at the cemetery, you change from is to has been. And turn to ash. His smearing of ash on his body signifies that all came from Time and go back to Time. Only Time rejoices in Time. All else is illusion.

So, you must be thinking how I can say that bhUta = all beings.
Is it extrapolation?
Modern day stretchable interpretation?

Well, look no further. Remember this shloka in praise of the Mother Devi?

या देवि सर्व-भूतेषु, शक्ति-रूपेण संस्थिता ।
नमस्तस्यै नमस्तस्यै, नमस्तस्यै नमो नमः ॥   
yā dévi sarva-bhūtéṣhu, shakti-rūpéṇa saṃsthitā |
namas_tasyai namas_tasyai, namas_tasyai namo namaḥ||   

The Dévī who is well established among "all beings" in the form of Shakti (power, energy, ability), salutation to her, salutation to her, salutation to her, salutation,  salutation.


And why three times? Because 'Three is a charm'?

No silly, the three salutations are referring to the three forms of the Dévī – Sarasvatī, Lakṣhmī, Durgā. And why three Devi-s? Because three is a charm indeed! :)

Happy NNF.


The Nine-Night Festival!
May the Devi keep you safe, healthy and happy.



(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

2 comments:

Jay said...

As you explained bhut…And at the cemetery, you change from is ….to was rather ….has been. And turn to ash. This may get bit confusing since bhut refers to all living beings, but than what burns down is body and not the soul….
The salutation to “shakti-rūpéṇa saṃsthitā” has to me even a deeper meaning as this is just not a philosophy or religion, but also a science. Shakti is the expressed form of Shiva who when unexpressed is symbolized as a BINDU…a formless! When expressed in the form of SHAKTI the counterpart of SHIVA, the whole universe comes in existence… So SHAKTI is the basis of life and expressed world. We enjoy or experience or observe… etc., etc.…. everything because of Shakti or energy. This shakti or energy in human beings is produces through the metabolism of food we consume. The final steps of energy production takes place in the subcellular organelles called MITOCHONDRIA. In us these organelles are inherited from MOTHER and not father! This is proved in modern biochemistry. So when we celebrate Goddesses Shakti or mother, we celebrate her contribution to our sole existence!!! For all of us every day is Mother’s day.
On the other note, Shashikant you seem to be an old timer as you mentioned the movie Bhoot Bangla. This was my favorite when I was in grade four (AROUND 1951).

Aman Deep said...

good explanation of sanskrit. --- my small interpretation ---the mahalord shiv is named as maha kaal. kal means time,santhykal,ratrikal,etc so mahakal -kal of kal--time of time is him\

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