Sunday, April 18, 2010

vocabulary revision - words so far

i didn't want to make any post only on language. but after so many posts, i thought it won't hurt to have just one post on words only. i have categorized words by similarity of types (vibhakti wise, and nouns, verbs, etc.) to help see the pattern of word changes.

these are only examples, not generic rules, but it would give you a good idea to guess a new word's meaning with better guesswork :)

in this post and a few more, we will recap all the sanskrit words we have encountered so far. now they will be out of context of the original shloka. see how many you remember, and what they mean. do a little bit of reading old posts and finding how the words were used. these words are from posts from beginning to 18 july 2009, only a handful of posts.

do post your comments, discussions, thoughts that come to mind when you hear the words below.

bhAryA (f.) = भार्या = wife.
mAtA (f.) = माता = mother (similar words in other languages - mader, mater, matri-, mother)
pitA (m.) = पिता = father (pater, patri-, father, papa, padre etc)
bAlaH (m.) = बालः = child, boy
dIpaH (m.) = दीपः = lamp
shakaTam (n.) = शकटम् = cart. shakatikA = small cart, as in the famous mRit-shakaTikam aka mRichhakaTikam (the little clay cart)
vAjinam = वाजिनं = horse
hastinam = हस्तिनं = elephant
durjanam = दुर्जनं = evil person, bad to the core. duH (bad) + jana (person)
viSham (n.) = विषं = poison

by, using as an instrument. common ending suffixes:
masculine = -ena, -naa, -aa,
fem = -yaa, -vaa, -aa,
mRityunA = मृत्युना = by death
pa~nchahastena = पञ्चहस्तेन, पंचहस्तेन = by (-ne) five (pa~ncha) hands (hasta)
dasha-hastena = दशहस्तेन = by ten hands (distance of ten hands)
sahasreNa = सहस्रेण = by thousand
desha-tyAgena = देशत्यागेन = by leaving the country
yena = येन = by whom

tubhyam = तुभ्यं = for you

vinayAt = विनयात् = from vinaya (discipline, humbleness)
pAtratvAt = पात्रत्वात् = from pAtratA (worthiness)
dhanAt = धनात् = from dhana (money)

स्य -sya for masculineneutral; याः - yaaH for feminine
me = मे = of i/ mine (mama)
vyAdhitasya = व्याधितस्य = of vyAdhitaH (ill, diseased)
mRitasya = मृतस्य = of dead (mRitaH)
vRishchikasya = वृश्चिकस्य = of vRishchikaH (scorpion)
makShikAyAH = मक्षिकायाः = of makShikA (fly)
takShakasya = तक्षकस्य = of takShakaH (poisonous snake)
durjanasya = दुर्जनस्य = of durjanaH (evil person)

-e for masc. singular; -eShu for masc. plural;
kesheShu (plural) = केशेषु = in kesha (hair)
pravAseShu (plural) = प्रवासेषु = in pravAsa (times of exile, living away)
gRiheShu (plural) = गृहेषु = in gRiham (homes)
samudreShu (plural) = समुद्रेषु = in samudraH (oceans)
tRipteShu (plural) = तृप्तेषु = in tRiptaH (people who are content)
dhanADhyeShu (plural) = धनाढ्येषु = in dhanADhya (wealthy)
puchchhe = पुच्छे = in puchchhaH (tail)
mastake = मस्तके = in mastakaH (head)
dante = दन्ते = in dantaH (tooth)
sarvA~Nge = सर्वाङ्गे, सर्वांगे = in all parts (sarva a~ngaH)
sabhA-madhye = सभामध्ये = in middle of gathering (sabhA-madhya)
haMsa-madhye = हंसमध्ये = in middle of swans (hamsa-madhya)

notice the change of trailing -I to -i when addressing:
sarasvati = सरस्वति = o saraswatI
varade = वरदे = o varadA
kAmarUpiNi = कामरूपिणि = o kAmarUpiNI

kariShyAmi = करिष्यामि = will do
bhavatu = भवतु = may happen (lat it happen)
chintayet = चिन्तयेत् = should worry
Acharet = आचरेत् = should behave
dadAti = ददाति = gives
Apnoti = आप्नोति = gets
shobhate = शोभते = graces (intransitive, hence -te ending, most common)

ajara = अजर = a-jara = without rust, without aging
amara = अमर = = a-mara = without death, immortal
prAGYaH = प्राज्ञः = wise, intelligent
gRihIta = गृहीत = grabbed
mitram = मित्रं = friend
shatruH = शत्रुः = enemy
vairI = वैरी = competitor
pAThitaH = पाठितः = taught (paThati = studies. adjective is made by pa- changing to pA-)

sadA = सदा = always
cha = च = and
iva = इव = as if
tataH = ततः = from there
vRithA = वृथा = useless, waste
api = अपि = also
yathA = यथा = as [used in pair of as (yathA) this, so is that]

amaravat = अमरवत् = like amara, immortal (adverb made by -vat suffix)

namaH = नमः = bowing
siddhiH = सिद्धिः = accomplishment
vidyA = विद्या = knowledge
Arambham = आरम्भं = starting
artham = अर्थं = meaning, money, purpose
dharmaH = धर्मः = dharma
vinayam = विनयं = discipline, humbleness, training
pAtratAm = पात्रतां = worthiness
dhanam = धनं = money, wealth
sukham = सुखं = comfort
auShadham = औषधं = medicine
vRiShTiH = वृष्टिः = rain
bhojanam = भोजनं = food
dAnam = दानं = charity, giving
bakaH = बकः = crane

try to remember in what context you read these words.
and do post your comments, so i know you read it, and other recap posts will make sense.

like it? then become a fan of the blog. please rate the post as well.
how can this site be made more interesting, useful? share your comments, use the comment link or the comment box below

(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook


  1. i cannot read the devanagari on my computer. what to do? i want that access. please suggest . . . i am on mac, os 10.5. thank you so much. this inspiration is wonderful !

  2. it would be nice to know your name, anonymous :)
    you can do two things.
    since i am using ITRANS as well (pure roman characters) you can make sense fully by just reading the roman. the codes are given at

    the other is to install parallels on Mac and install windows.

    i am using unicode font for devanagari, so unless Mac is boycotting unicode, i am not sure why you can't read on Mac.

    but following the ITRANS should work since it uses only roman characters. that was the whole reason for developing that code back in 1992, when we used to discuss hindi movie lyrics on newsgroups :)


Please do add your name and place, after the comment.