Sunday, December 19, 2010

Four degrees of pronouns - एतद् etad इदम् idam अदस् adas तद् tad

There are four degrees of pronouns, based on proximity.

एतद् = etad = this (very close);
इदम् = idam = this (close);
अदस् = adas = that (away);
तद् = tad = that (not present, i.e. in absentia).

These are root words, their forms in three genders go very similarly.

एतद् = एषः एतौ एते
etad = eShaH etau ete

इदम् = अयम् इमौ इमे
idam = ayam imau ime

अदस् = असौ अमू अमी
adas = asau amU amI

तद् = सः तौ ते
tad = saH tau te

एतद् = एषा एते एताः
etad = eShA ete etAH

इदम् = इयम् इमे इमाः
idam = iyam ime imAH

अदस् = असौ अमू अमूः
adas = asau amU amUH

तद् = सा ते ताः
tad = sA te tAH


एतद् = एतत् एते एतानि
etad = etat ete etAni

इदम् = इदम् इमे इमानि
idam = idam ime imAni

अदस् = अदः अमू अमूनि
adas = adaH amU amUni

तद् = तत् ते तानि
tad = tat te tAni

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(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
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  1. Wonderful information, excellent relational format. Thanks. Ravi, Bengaluru.

  2. After hours of searching I found the difference. Thanks

  3. Very useful doubt has been cleared which i was unable to with books...thanks Sandhya, bangalore

  4. धन्यवादः। इदम् अति उपयोगी ज्ञानम्।

  5. Good compilation Shashikant !!!


  6. Thanks for the info. Next time this is the site i will refer first.

  7. Very practical way to teach the basics for a permanent learning process. Thank you, Sir.


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