Monday, June 16, 2014

Whatever comes, also goes.



Whatever comes, also goes.
सर्वं वा इदमेति च प्रेति च
sarvaM vA idameti cha preti cha
[ शतपथब्राह्मणम् shata-patha-brAhmaNam 1.4.1.6 ]

The English saying 'What goes around, comes around' means - what you do, so will you get. If you spread love, you will receive love. If you spread hatred, you will get hatred.

The Sanskrit line is not just advising on what you should do to get good stuff happen to you. It warns that whatever comes to you, will also go away. So don't have attachment to anything, else it will lead to sorrow later on. As we met lot of people, and leave lots, so is everything. Nothing is permanent.


So what is yours? What you got is from this world, and you will leave everything here.
You came with nothing, you leave with nothing.
So why be selfish in between and hurt others for momentary pleasures?
Why not live happily helping each other?


Word by word meaning
sarvaM vA idameti cha preti cha
= sarvaM vA idam eti cha preti cha
sarvaM = all
vA = for emphasis
idam = this
eti = comes
cha = and
preti = goes (returns)
cha = and

For a list A, B, C and D, it is written as 'A B C D cha' or 'A cha B cha C cha D cha'. Here it is second method used.




(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशीॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Friday, June 6, 2014

Sanskrit origins of English's possessive case using apostrophe

I always wondered where does the apostrophe 's come to mean possessive case. Like John's = Of John, car's = of car etc.

It also struck me the ShaShThI ekavachana षष्ठी एकवचन (sixth vibhakti, singular) for masculine and neuter gender end in -sya. Like rAma-sya = of rAma; deva-sya = of deva etc.

So I did some searching around and here is what I found.

The possessive 's comes from the masculine genitive case ending on -es in Old English. This means that you could say "of [the] man" by simply sticking -es after "man". The genitive case was often used to indicate the possessor of something. In German, the genitive case is still used, and it ends on -(e)s for masculine and neuter singular words: the man = der Mann; the man's house = des Mannes Haus. As you see, the genitive is also used with articles.  [ From http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/9467/origins-of-possessive-pronouns]
And,

When the apostrophe mark was introduced into English in the 1500s, it was originally used to show where a letter or syllable had been omitted. 
We still use it this way in contractions, but in fact it’s also how the apostrophe came to be a mark of possession.   
In Old English, long before the apostrophe came into use, the possessive ending for most nouns was es.
A house belonging to John, for example, would have been called something like “Johnes house.” (Another way to show possession was by using the word “of,” as in “the house of John.”) 
After the apostrophe came along, a possessive word like “Johnes” was written as “John’s” to show that a letter had been dropped—the e in es.
But the story is not as simple as that.
In Middle English (around 1100-1500) and later, the possessive ending es was often misheard as the possessive pronoun “his.”
This accounts for such erroneous old constructions as “John his house” (meaning “Johnes house”).
Historians have suggested that printers used the apostrophe (“John’s”) as a shortened form of either possessive, the legitimate “Johnes” or the illegitimate “John his.”
In “Axing the Apostrophe,” a 1989 article in English Today, the language writer Adrian Room has called the word for this punctuation mark “a cumbersome name for an awkward object.”
Where does this clunky name come from?
The short answer, John Ayto’s Dictionary of Word Origins tells us, is that we got it via Latin and French from the classical Greek phrase prosoidia apostrophos, literally “accent of turning away.”
[ From http://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2010/09/apostrophe.html ] 

---

And that is where the Sanskrit influence can be seen, not in 1500's but in Greek times.





(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

My idea of India - by Prime Minister of India




I recently found this video on the official page of the Prime Minister of India.

This is before he made this speech. Even then he was clear on what kind of India he wanted. Maybe that is one of the things that got him the landslide victory.

Most of his ideas are coming from the vast ocean of wisdom of Indian seers right from the Vedic times. Those who (yes, there are many) see this as a red flag of Hindu fundamentalism, should remember that it is India's grand heritage which everyone in India should be proud of. Don't give it religious color just because it is in Sanskrit.

One great ting the then Prime Minister-candidate did is to take the inspirations from Indian sources, rather than to quote Western philosophers. After all, in thought leadership why look anywhere else? Our own mind is enough. And when it is not enough, we look in the minds of our ancestors who shared it in their works over the ages.

The ideas he mention are all also shown in Sanskrit and English with translation in the video, you can pause to read if the meaning is not immediately clear.

That is where the utility of Sanskrit for modern times is (apart from others for more serious pursuers). The great ideas it has. For the skeptics, you are free to not take all ideas, since some may not be good or relevant for today. But think and process before discarding.

This is not a political post, but all leaders should learn thought-leadership first from the wisdom of the land, and then if still the need be, look beyond the borders.





(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Members of Parliament take oath in Sanskrit



For those who thought Sanskrit was a dead language, in the latest Parliament, two members took oath in Sanskrit. Many more took oaths in their own mother tongues, from different states. Check this link for all the interesting facts.

It is also evident from every Indian Rupee note, all the various languages recognized in the constitution.Fourth from bottom is Sanskrit on this Rs 50 note.



Watch the video below of MP Sushma Swaraj taking oath.







(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Sunday, June 1, 2014

It is what you give, not what you have, that matters.






In life we see many great success stories, very prosperous people, companies etc. Sometimes we have to ask for help in terms of a job, loan, advice, whatever. Who should we approach?
Who is a better employer? A better help in times of need?

A small well with sweet water is any day preferable for quenching thirst than a huge ocean which only gives salt water. It is not how much you have, but what you give that matters.

Your success and greatness is not in hoarding a lot of things from the rest of the society. How are you using those resources for which the society has given you the charge? Are you using to splurge on yourself? Or are you using it for the good of others?

Ultimately, you can only consume and use a very limited amount of things. Everyone has a fistful of stomach to fill with food. You can splurge it on a $5000 of single wine bottle from a century back or use that to do some worthwhile cause.

Your greatness is not in how much you have, but in what you are willing to give.




And now the language aspects -

Here is the anvaya (all sandhi broken into base words):

दाता लघुः अपि सेव्यः भवति, न कृपणः महान् अपि समृद्ध्या ।
कूपः अन्तःस्वादुजलः प्रीत्यै लोकस्य न समुद्रः॥ (devanAgari)

dātā laghuḥ api sévyaḥ bhavati, na kṛipaṇaḥ mahān api samṛiddhyā |
kūpaḥ antaḥ-svadu-jalaḥ prītyai lokasya na samudraḥ || (IAST)

dAtA laghuH api sevyaH bhavati, na kRipaNaH mahAn api samRiddhyA |
kUpaH antaH-svadu-jalaH prItyai lokasya na samudraH || (ITRANS)

dātā = giver
laghuḥ = small
api = even, also
sévyaḥ = worth pursuing (serving or being served. In case of a boss/master it is worth serving under such a master. In case of a well, it is worth being served by well’s water)
bhavati = happens, is.
na = not
kṛipaṇaḥ = miser
mahānapi = mahān (huge, big, great)+ api (even, also)
samṛiddhyā = in/by prosperity [sam+ṛiddhi = samyak (complete) +ṛiddhi (growth) ]
kūpaḥ = well
antaḥ-svadu-jalaḥ = whose water is sweet inside
prītyai = for pleasing
lokasya = of people
na = not
samudraḥ = ocean

That is, A giver is worthy even if small, not a miser great in prosperity. The sweet water well [is for] pleasing people [who are thirsty], not the ocean.




(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Saturday, May 31, 2014

Spelling Bee 2014 co-winners and 'real' Americans




Congratulations to the co-winners Sriram Hathwar and Ansun Sujoe of Spelling Bee contest.

And of course the racial remarks of frustration as to why 'Americans' are not winning it. Check this as well.

Indian-Americans have won 11 out of 15 times since 1999. That is indeed a trend and feat. Shows Indians have an affinity to languages. Now if some kids will focus on Sanskrit as well :) Or is it just their 'tiger' parents behind them!

In all this, a few thoughts came to mind:

No Spelling Bee for Sanskrit
Sanskrit and related Indian languages won't have such a thrilling spelling bee contest because once you learn the alphabet (the sound to letter mapping) there is no more mystery to it. You could have a sandhi (सन्धि) and samAsa (समास) contest though! Where long words are shortened and short words combined to make really long words! The longest word is also a Sanskrit word. (निरन्तरान्धकारिता-दिगन्तर-कन्दलदमन्द-सुधारस-बिन्दु-सान्द्रतर-घनाघन-वृन्द-सन्देहकर-स्यन्दमान-मकरन्द-बिन्दु-बन्धुरतर-माकन्द-तरु-कुल-तल्प-कल्प-मृदुल-सिकता-जाल-जटिल-मूल-तल-मरुवक-मिलदलघु-लघु-लय-कलित-रमणीय-पानीय-शालिका-बालिका-करार-विन्द-गलन्तिका-गलदेला-लवङ्ग-पाटल-घनसार-कस्तूरिकातिसौरभ-मेदुर-लघुतर-मधुर-शीतलतर-सलिलधारा-निराकरिष्णु-तदीय-विमल-विलोचन-मयूख-रेखापसारित-पिपासायास-पथिक-लोकान्)


Useless words merely for contests?Kids should stop wasting their brains on learning spellings of words that are merely used in contests, when they don't even follow phonetics. Might as well learn the 3000+ characters of Chinese! (no disrespect meant for anyone) But each word of English which violates phonetics rules is a new 'character' (sound-to-symbol mapping) to remember. One has to remember the entire combination of letters. So there are many more than 26 'letters' of English. There are too many examples of the inconsistencies. Try reading this poem for a challenge

(Dearest creature in creation,
Study English pronunciation.
I will teach you in my verse
Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.
I will keep you, Suzy, busy,
Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
Tear in eye, your dress will tear.
So shall I’ Oh hear my prayer.
Just compare heart, beard, and heard,
Dies and diet, lord and word,
Sword and sward, retain and Britain.
(Mind the latter, how it’s written.)
Now I surely will not plague you
With such words as plaque and ague.
But be careful how you speak:
Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;
Cloven, oven, how and low,
Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.)



'Real' Americans prefer sports over language, Bubba?
Americans, the so-called 'real' ones who claim that America is theirs alone, those ones) should realize that even at their own language (which they have made EZ and Kool) they are not excelling, this must be a low for their own kids' study efforts. Why crib when the 'real' American kids are busy with football and basketball, Pokemon and Clash of Clans? After all, sports has more money than spelling bee! :)



America progresses in matters, not where it matters.
These kids who won are US citizen, mostly born in US itself, and are equally American. Just their parents couldn't shrug off their Indian baggage and imposed the importance of education and knowledge on the kids at an early age. This current spate of racism shows that despite the progress America has made in material things, it has not made much on social and human levels. They not only still feel averse to diversity, want success without working on it. This is not what made US succeed in the hundred years!

Despite all the technological growth guns and prisons are still a 'major blow to the American society', apart from racism and killer capitalism. 6-year old shoots grand-dad and 36-month old shoots 18-month old !



Bilingual is not bad
The 'real' Americans tell the Spanish to learn English if they want to live in America. Now the Indians are just following the commands of the 'real' Americans. Why this kolavari di?
Shouldn't the real Americans be proud that these immigrants (and/or their kids) not only learn English, they far exceed the 'real Americans themselves! What a faithful bunch of immigrants.

People of narrow-minded thinking are in every society. It is exposure to more ideas, thoughts, places, opportunities that broaden the minds. But when so-called advanced society and educated people express so racially insultingly, then one starts to wonder the claims of human progress.



(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Friday, May 30, 2014

Hindi newspaper from 1925


Found this piece of newspaper from 1925 CE. It was used to wrap a book (that was not a Sanskrit book). But these are the kind of nostalgic treasure trough one finds when visiting back to the rural roots.

For those who cannot read devanagari, some points are :

  1. Hindi daily from Kolkata (Calcutta), printed on 23 March 1925
  2. The mission statement says - "dharme te dhIyatAm buddhir_manas_te-mahad_astu cha" That is, roughly, "May your intellect be steadfast in dharma, and your heart be magnanimous" from Mahabharata.
  3. Catastrophe in America - referring to the Tri-State Tornado.  As of the news 300 killed in Frankfurt, 150 in Murphysboro, Perry was wiped out, 2700 injured.
  4. Lord Curzon died in London.
  5. Freedom fighter Subhash Chandra Bose arrested.
  6. Mahatma Gandhi visits Madras (Chennai).
  7. 2 dead, 12 houses damaged in Mandale fire in a godown of dry tea.
  8. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya bought Hindustan Times for 50,000 Rupees in 1925.



(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Good governance and 16 percent tax




After the recent government change in India, with the promises and expectations of development and good governance, let us look at some signs of good governance from Sanskrit sources. We can learn some Sanskrit while discussing relevant modern topics as well.

"The guilt/crime/sin that a king gets, whose people are unprotected even after taking one-sixth (of the income as tax), may the he get upon whose counsel Rama went to exile in the forest."

The background of this shloka from Ramayana is when Rama’s brother Bharata comes back from Kekaya to find Rama has gone at the behest of his own mother Kaikeyi. When Rama’s mother Kaushalya scolds him, a sad and repentant Bharata says he had nothing to do with this. And then as if to prove his point, he hurls the curses on the one who instigated this whole thing. When today’s curses are of lowest level possible, the curses that Bharata gives show the elegance of the writer Valmiki and the high standards of the society and its elites.

From the above curse of Bharata two things are very clear.

One, it was a serious matter that a person doesn't do his duty. Dharma is one’s chosen duty. A king’s duty is to protect and prosper the citizens. That is the reason the tax is collected. Not for the enjoyment of the king. The king simply gets his salary (a higher but limited salary). If a king does not do that even after taking the tax, he is guilty, sinner, criminal; whichever way you want to look at. And this was so grave a matter, that Bharata curses the instigator with this grave curse.

Two, the tax at that time was one-sixth. That is 16%. And Ayodhya was one of the richest city of its time. And it was called the Golden Goose (Sone ki Chidiya in Hindi). And the world clamored to come here, in peace and in violence and in deceit, but came they all!

Why is it not possible today to have 16% tax and all the benefits, riches. Because the greedy corporations siphon off the resources of the society. The corrupt politicians swindle the money.

Even if we simply stop the corruption of present day (lakhs of crores of Rupees), we can lower the tax rate and still make progress. If we are able to get the Swiss bank black money of Indians then we will know what development can be.

There is enough to fulfill everyone’s needs
but not enough for even one person’s greeds.


And now the language aspects -


bali = sacrifice (tax)
ShaD = sixth
bhAgam = part (sixth part of the income)

uddhRitya = having taken, after taking (ut- = up, out; + hRit = to take away; + -ya = prefix to denote ‘after having done’)

nRipasya = of the protector (-pa) of people (nRi)

arakShitaH = unprotected (a- = not; rakSh = to protect; rakShitaH = protected)
prajAH = subjects of the king, citizens, people of a land (literally those that are born, generations, descendants)

adharmo = adharmaH = not right/just/fair (the guilt/sin of not being right) [ dharma = dhArayati iti dharmaH, right thing/action at the right time ]
yo’sya = yaH asya = that which is of such a king (whose people are unprotected even after 1/6 tax) [yaH = that which’ asya = of this]
so’syAstu = saH + asya + astu = that be of him [astu = may it be]
yasyAryo’numate = yasya + AryaH + anumate = upon whose counsel Rama [AryaH = noble, sir, contextually rAma; mati = thought, opinion; anumata = counsel, advice; anumate = in/by the advice of ]
gataH = went (to exile) [gaM = to go; gataH = that which is gone]


Pronunciation help with other Sanskrit words used in text:
rAmAyaNa रामायण ; bharata भरत ; kaikeyI कैकेयी ; kaushalyA कौशल्या ; vAlmIki वाल्मीकि ; dharma धर्म





(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.

Monday, May 26, 2014

What does 'Narendra Damodardas Modi' mean?



What does the name Narendra Damodardas Modi mean?

नराणां इन्द्रः = नरेद्रः
narāṇāṃ indraḥ = naréndraḥ
= Protector of people
= Lord, ruler, governor of people.

Though he has called himself  ‘Mazdoor #1’ i.e. ‘Worker #1’. Keeping up with his background as a had working man, and able administrator.

He is new Prime Minister of India, Honorable Shri Narendra Damodardas Modi.

Congratulations to the largest democracy in the world and, for those who know, the oldest as well. The concept of jana-pada (region ruled by the people) is older than Emperor Ashoka the Great, and older than Mahabharata.
After a very long time the people of India have got a leader who oozes confidence and determination. People may differ politically, but no one can deny we have a leader who wants to do a lot, and has the ability to do a lot good for the country.

The first prime minister to openly ask people to contribute with ideas, time, skill and energy. And to embrace technology with open arms.

Check out the Official website of the PM , Official site of Narendra Modi


Word meanings:
narendra / नरेन्द्र = nara + indra / नर + इन्द्र = Ruler of the people

dāmodara-dāsa /dAmodara-dAsa / दामोदरदास = ‘devotee (dāsa ) of Krishna’

dāmodara = dāmā (rope) + udara (belly) = The one with rope around the belly. This name refers the incident in Krishna's life when his mother, tired of his bothering her with his antics, tried to tie him to a drum so she could finish morning chores. But to her surprise, the rope she used was two finger-breadth short. No matter how much more rope she got, it was always short by two finger-breadths. Hence the name for Krishna as Damodar (dāmodara)

modī / modI / मोदी = Glad, pleased, cheerful. (from modin मोदिन्)
In Panchatantra comes the word goShThika-karma गौष्ठिककर्म as one of the seven businesses. This would translate today to a ‘supplier, event manager, resource organizer’.


Click to jump to his oath taking at 10min 30 sec


(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशीॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.



Sunday, May 12, 2013

Do unto others - golden rule of humanity




We have all read about the golden rule and its history in almost all world cultures - "Do unto others what you wish to be done to you" or the negation of it "Do not do unto others what you don not wish to be done to you."

But rarely you find the reference to this in ancient Indian tradition. While this sentiment abounds all over in Sanskrit literature small and large, here is an actual reference from Mahabharata that says it exactly as is.


Hence, by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, 
treat others as you treat yourself.

= तस्माद्धर्मप्रधानेन भवितव्यं यतात्मना ।
तथा च सर्वभूतेषु वर्तितव्यं यथात्मनि ॥
= tasmād_dharma-pradhānéna bhavitavyam yatātmanā |
tathā cha sarva-bhūtéṣhu vartitavyam yathātmani ||
[Mahābhārata Shānti-Parva 167:9]

Vidura says to the king Yuddhishthira, "Listening to wise scriptures, austerity, sacrifice, respectful faith, social welfare, forgiveness, purity of intent, compassion, truth and self-control - are the ten wealth of character (self). O king aim for these, may you be steadfast in these qualities. These are the basis of prosperity and rightful living. These are highest attainable things. All worlds are balanced on dharma, dharma encompasses ways to prosperity as well. O King, dharma is the best quality to have, wealth the medium and desire (kāma, kAma) the lowest.

Hence, (keeping these in mind), by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself."

There is no need to explain this self-explanatory, simplest of core values. If only everyone can follow just this one rule, there will be no man-made problems in the world!

And now the language aspects -

tasmād /tasmAt = hence
dharma-pradhānéna / dharma-pradhAnena = by keeping dharma as main focus
bhavitavyam = is worth becoming, one should become
yatātmanā / yatAtmanA = yata + ātmanā /AtmanA = restrained, by self , i.e. by restrained self, controlled self.
tathā / tathA = similarly, in that manner
cha = and
sarva-bhūtéṣhu / sarva-bhUteShu = in all (sarva) beings (bhūta/bhUta)
vartitavyam = one should behave
yathātmani / yathAtmani = yathā /yathA + ātmani /Atmani = as in oneself.


 


(c) shashikant joshi । शशिकांत जोशी । ॐ सर्वे भवन्तु सुखिनः ।
Practical Sanskrit. All rights reserved. Check us on Facebook.